- Prof Chris Kennedy (ISIE President, University of Victoria, Canada)
- Prof Marina Fischer-Kowalski (Institute of Social Ecology, Austria)
- Prof Yuichi Moriguchi (University of Tokyo, Japan)
- Ms Chikako Takase (United Nations Centre for Regional Development)
- Prof Heinz Schandl (CSIRO, Australia; Nagoya University, Japan)
- Ms Masako Yamato (Toyota Motor Corporation, Japan)
- Prof Hisato Okamoto (Frontier of Socio-Science studies, Japan)
- Prof Clemens Deilmann (IOER, Germany)
- Dr Walter Reinhardt (United Nations Environment Programme)
Prof Chris Kennedy
University of Victoria, President of the International Society for Industrial Ecology
Chris Kennedy is Chair of the new Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Victoria. He conducts research on sustainable cities, urban metabolism, and the industrial ecology of sustainable global infrastructure systems. Holding qualifications in Civil Engineering, Economics and Business, Chris has conducted consulting work on sustainable infrastructure / cities for clients including: governments of Canada, China, Saudi Arabia, UAE, and the UK; as well as the World Bank, Waterfront Toronto / Clinton Climate Initiative, UCLA / California Energy Commission, and the Ontario Ministry of Finance. In 2011/12, he was seconded to the OECD in Paris, to work on Cities, Green Growth and Policies for Encouraging Investment in Low Carbon Infrastructure. Chris has been a visiting professor at Oxford University and ETH Zürich. He is President of the International Society for Industrial Ecology; and author of The Evolution of Great World Cities: Urban Wealth and Economic Growth.
“The Metabolism of Megacities, with Insights for Future Cities”
A team of 28 researchers from 19 countries conducted the first comprehensive study of the energy and materials flows for the world’s 27 megacities. In aggregate, the world’s 27 megacities are home to 6.7% of global population, but produce 12.6% of global solid waste, and consume 9.9% of global gasoline and 9.3% of global electricity. Eleven megacities (New York, Tokyo, Moscow, Seoul, Los Angeles, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Osaka, Tehran, Mexico City and London) consume in excess of 1 million GJ/year. Rates between the lowest and highest consuming megacities differ by a factor of 28 for energy per capita, 23 for water per capita, 19 for waste production per capita, 35 for total steel consumption and 6 for total cement. Many of the megacities are consuming resources at rates below those which support a basic standard of living for all citizens. Differences in the resource flows of megacities are influenced by climate, urban form, economic activity and scale effects. Lower density megacities are found to have greater building floor area per capita, explaining their higher per capita use of electricity. Many of the megacities are growing rapidly in population, but even faster in energy use, both for stationary and mobile use.
Emerging from the megacities work is a clear understanding that to be sustainable, future cities will be electric. Electrification is central to many national visions for deep decarbonisation and would be one major component of achieving net zero carbon cities. Low carbon electrification entails replacing fossil-fuel powered engines and furnaces, etc., with electric devices such as electric vehicles (both for public and private transport) and heat pumps (which provide both heating and cooling) powered from renewable resources. Electricity consumption in cities in the global south is already increasing at rates far exceeding population growth rates. Global electricity use will continue to rise as it is strongly linked to economic growth, but there is potential to meet this electricity demand from carbon-free sources, as we show in Latin America, where megacities are fed by about 70% from renewable sources. The development of electric cities using low carbon power is thus a key strategy for addressing the challenges of global climate change, as well as enhancing the quality of services for the under-served in rapidly urbanizing regions (e.g., greater reliability, decreased reliance on dirty fuels). We also explore the role of utilities and policy makers in driving the transition to sustainable, electric city.
Prof Marina Fischer-Kowalski
Marina Fischer-Kowalski founded the Institute of Social Ecology in Vienna, where she teaches as professor of the Alpen Adria University. Her background is in sociology. She was president of the International Society of Industrial Ecology, and currently she is President of the International Society for Ecological Economics. As expert member of UNEP’s International Resource Panel, she became lead author to its publication, “Decoupling resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth” (2011) and “International Trade in Resources” (2015). She is interested in social metabolism across history, on global, national and local scales, and investigates how it relates to social dynamics (quality of life, equity, division and quality of labour, time use) and to environmental change.
“Downscaling or upscaling: Anthropocenic perspectives”
What can Industrial Ecology contribute to the Anthropocene debate? The disciplinary focus of IE is human behaviour – in its energetic, material and technological impact on the natural environment, depending in particular on human control of energy beyond biological needs. Thus the transition to using fossil fuels is a major turning point in human-environment history. Using a long-term global perspective and database, we reconstruct this still ongoing transition across centuries and try to learn from it for an unfolding next transition. Our conclusion highlights the tension between what we may want – be it downsizing and decarbonizing social metabolism, be it upscaling and managing the Earth System by geoengineering – and what we actually can and will do. While the Anthropocene debate is focused on history, Industrial Ecology maybe has tools to anticipate future.
Prof Yuichi Moriguchi
The University of Tokyo
Yuichi Moriguchi is currently a professor at the Department of Urban Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. He holds Ph.D. in Engineering, graduated from the Faculty of Engineering at Kyoto University and joined the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) in 1982. He was engaged in environmental research at NIES until 2011, where he was appointed to the Director of the Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management for 2005-2011. His research field covers Material Flow and Stock Analysis, Life Cycle Assessment, 3R policy analysis, Post-disaster environmental management, etc. In his early career, he had also worked for the Environment Agency of Japan and for the OECD Environment Directorate in Paris. He is one of the inaugural members of the UNEP International Resource Panel since 2007 and he had been elected to the chairperson of the Working Group on Environmental Information and Outlooks of the OECD for 2003-2008. He co-chaired the 2010 ISIE MFA-ConAccount / Asia-Pacific meeting in Tokyo. He was awarded the 2013 Society Prize of International Society for Industrial Ecology.
“Science-policy interface in Material Flow Analysis – Lessons from Japanese and international activities”
Industrial Ecology research has made a remarkable progress during last two decades. At the 8th ISIE biennial conference in July 2015 in Surrey University, plenary sessions for taking stock of Industrial Ecology were held. The review on MFA covered institutional progress, empirical studies on specific materials, products and wastes, as well as relevance of MFA to resource and waste policies. It was only several years after the first publication of the international joint study by World Resources Institute, when a core set of three material flow indicators with quantitative targets were adopted in the first Japanese Fundamental Plan for Sound Material-Cycle Society in 2003. This pioneering policy action in Japan was based on progress in MFA studies. The set of material flow indicators was extended by introducing additional and supplementary indicators, such as resource productivity excluding construction minerals and resource productivity in terms of Raw Material Equivalent to compensate shortcomings of the first core set. International fora such as G7/G8, OECD and UNEP played a key role in sharing scientific expertise and encouraging policy applications in countries. The International Resource Panel (IRP), to which several industrial ecology experts contribute as panel members, plays more institutionalized role in science-policy interface. Most recently, IRP contributed a rapid assessment report on resource efficiency upon request from G7 summit, and published a first comprehensive report on global material flows and resource productivity. Progress in material flow studies is a good practice in two dimensions, i.e., interactions between scientific research and policy, as well as interactions between national activities and international activities. In conclusion, MFA has matured to the point where it is now mandated as a tool for national and international policy, though further expansion and integration are expected.
Ms Chikako Takase
Chikako Takase assumed the position of Director of UNCRD in February 2012, after serving as Acting Director since March 2011. Prior to coming to UNCRD, she served as Deputy Chief of the Policy Coordination Branch, Office for ECOSOC Support and Coordination at the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA). She began her career at the UN in 1984, after serving as Associate Expert Officer in Jakarta for UNIDO. She first worked for the Projections and Perspective Studies Branch, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, where she was in charge of medium-term forecasting, and at the Macroeconomic and Social Policy Analysis Division, Department of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, where she was involved in monitoring developed country economies and in drafting the Department’s flagship annual publication, World Economic Survey. She later worked for the Division for Sustainable Development (DSD), Department of Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, during which time she had an opportunity to work for the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity from 1996-1999. While at DSD, she was involved in the preparation as well as organization of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002. At DSD, her work mainly focused on changing consumption and production patterns. She holds B.A. in Liberal Arts (Economics) from International Christian University, Japan, and M.A. in Development Economics from the University of Sussex, UK.
“Regional 3R Forum in Asia-Pacific – A Platform for Advancing 3R and Resource Efficiency under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”
The United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) together with the Ministry of the Environment of the Government of Japan have been organizing Regional 3R Forum in Asia and the Pacific annually since 2009 with the aim of mainstreaming 3Rs and resource efficiency in the overall policy, planning and development of national and local governments, including through high-level policy dialogue, exchanging information with relevant stakeholders and developing multi-layered networks and partnerships.
With the adoption of Transforming our world: 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (the 2030 Agenda) at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015 as the new development agenda for the next 15 years, sustainable development became the overall framework of policies and activities for all countries. The 2030 Agenda is a very comprehensive and ambitious plan of action, involving all countries. The core of the 2030 Agenda is the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 associated targets. Within it, the world leaders committed to making fundamental changes in the way that the societies produce and consume goods and services; recognized that social and economic development depends on the sustainable management of the planet’s natural resources; and committed to reduce the negative impacts of urban activities, including through the reduction and recycling of waste and the more efficient use of water and energy.
While the concern on unsustainable use of resources is explicit also in the 2030 Agenda, the global use of natural resources has accelerated during the past decade and emissions and wastes have grown along with increasing extraction and use of resources. The Regional 3R Forum in Asia-Pacific recognizes that the region has been most dynamic globally and most of the resource use has been triggered by the urban-industrial transformation in the region. Adopted by the members at the 4th Regional 3R Forum in Asia-Pacific held in Ha Noi, Viet Nam in 2013, the Ha Noi 3R Declaration (2013-2023) and the underlined 33 goals in the areas of 3R and resource efficiency provides an important basis and framework for the countries towards integration of 3Rs in their overall policy, planning and infrastructure development. The Ha Noi 3R Declaration is the first regional consensus and Declaration of the kind which would have significant implications under the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Prof Heinz Schandl
Heinz Schandl is a senior science leader at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) based in Canberra, Australia and an adjunct professor at the Graduate School of Environmental Studies at Nagoya University. His research links social theory, social metabolism and public policy to explore pathways for sustainable consumption and production and green economy based on measuring and modelling of sustainability and policy analysis.
He is a member of UNEP’s International Resource Panel and a member of the UNCRD expert group of the Regional 3R Forum in Asia. He is an associate editor of the Journal of Industrial Ecology and editorial board member for the Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. He is the chair of the 2016 Gordon Research Conference for Industrial Ecology. He has been leading projects for UNEP, ESCAP, and the European Commission and has been a consultant for the OECD, the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank.
“Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals with Ambitious Policies for Climate Mitigation and Resource Efficiency”
The new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) acknowledge the deep links between human development, natural resource use and greenhouse gas emissions and suggest a number of targets for resource productivity and sustainable management of natural resources to secure the environmental basis of human wellbeing. In my talk I will discuss the tensions between the development aspects and environmental dimensions of the SDGs. I will present new results from a study on global material flows which shows fast increasing demand for natural resources in the global economy, and policy options that may help decouple economic growth from increasing environmental pressures and impacts. I will discuss how a combination of resource efficiency and greenhouse abatement policies may create a policy mix capable of achieving the two-degree climate pathway, reducing overall global resource use and creating more desirable economic and development outcomes.
Ms Masako Yamato
Project General Manager, Environmental Affairs Division, Toyota Motor Corporation
Masako Yamato is currently in charge of promoting the environmental initiatives in the areas of products, manufacturing, resource recycling, and distributors and suppliers to achieve the goal of “Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050”. She was working for developing “Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050” at Environmental Affairs Division in 2014/2015. She built the scenario for the development of fuel-efficiency technologies in China at R&D and Engineering Management Division in 2011. Prior to these assignments, she was involved in planning and promoting the mid-long term strategy for reducing CO2 emissions from products to meet the global climate policy at Environmental Affairs Division started in 2000. In her early career at Toyota Motor Corporation she had worked for leading the fuel-efficiency and emission regulation affairs, introducing the environmental management (ISO14001 certification) into R&D area, and developing the Life Cycle Assessment in vehicle design process at Technical Administration Division.
“Toyota’s Environmental Initiatives: Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050”
Since its foundation in 1937, Toyota has inherited a corporate philosophy “Contribute to society via technology, and contribute to industrial development, through the manufacturing of cars.” However, the current global environment is not likely to improve. Adversely, it is getting worse day by day. The deterioration of air quality in urban area and the extreme weather phenomena caused by greenhouse gas emissions have been threatening our daily life. With the current problem awareness, we thought we would need to address new challenges looking ahead the next two to three decades, and we released “Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050” last year. To go beyond zero environmental impact and achieve a net positive impact, Toyota has set itself six challenges as below;
- New Vehicle Zero CO2 Emissions Challenge
- Life Cycle Zero CO2 Emissions Challenge
- Plant Zero CO2 Emissions Challenge
- Challenge of Minimizing and Optimizing Water Usage
- Challenge of Establishing a Recycling-based Society and Systems
- Challenge of Establishing a Future Society in Harmony with Nature
All these challenges, whether in climate change or resource and water recycling, are beset with difficulties, however we are committed to continuing toward the year 2050 with steady initiatives in order to realize sustainable development together with society.
Prof Hisato Okamoto
Frontier of Socio-Science studies
Hisato Okamoto is director of the “Frontier of Socio-Science studies” in Kyushu International University, Japan, which was established in April 2000 and where he coordinated various types of specialists’ theories in natural science, engineering, and social science. Moreover, he took a main role in forming a “stock-based social theory”, and at present he is promoting a “Regional-development Simulator”, which aims for a stock-based society in general purposes.
He is involved in policymaking, including involvement in the legislation of laws to promote long-lifespan residences which would be used by multiple generations, suggested “environmental model city structure” and “conversion to stock-type society” to the national government, participated in “urban (town) development” for the local cities including Kitakyushu, and participated in “nature creation” – shifting waste final disposal site to biotope.
His experience in industry includes Nippon Steel Co., where he had several roles including Factory management, I.E., O.R., and technological development. During that time, he supported establishing investigative research approaches and organizing several nature conservation groups. From these experiences he gained some ideas for an ECO-ECO (Economy as Ecology) approach in biological perspectives.
During his term at the Nippon Steel Rome office, he dealt with international technology transfer as a technologist. Meanwhile, he had the opportunity to experience various activities such as art, music, and international nature conservations. Living in Rome for 8 years gave him an opportunity to gain some ideas on a theory of stock-based society.
He has published books and articles on the topics of stock-based society, ECO-ECO theory, and biological quantitative research methods.
“A method to establish a ‘Stock-type Society’ “
Prof Clemens Deilmann
Head of Research Area Resource Efficiency of Settlement Structures, Leibniz-Institute of Ecological and Regional Development (IOER)
Clemens Deilmann is Head of Research Area Resource Efficiency of Settlement Structures at the Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development, Dresden, Germany and Professor of Ecological Design and Construction, Dresden University of Applied Sciences. He has his first degree (Diploma) in Architecture at RWTH Aachen (1979) and a Post-graduate diploma in energy studies at Architectural Association School of Architecture in London (1980). His professional experience he started as Architect. From 1984-1989 he was Research assistant at Technical University Darmstadt (Focus on ecological sound design and construction). His research career started 1992 as Head of the dept. Housing and Sustainable Construction at Leibniz Institute of Ecological and Regional Development Dresden. Research interests were LCA, energy balance tools, building assessment and certification. In 2006 he found the new Research department Resource Efficiency of Settlement Structures. His research specialty is the analyses of material flows and stocks in the building sector, urban-structural-type-analyses and urban infrastructure issues linked to development scenarios of cities till 2060.
“Built environment – limits for downsizing the metabolism”
The physical occurrence of settlements is a result of human activities (housing, production, consumption, education, health, planning, administration, policy, etc.). Settlements are a sediment of history in the truest sense of the word (almost 90 % of matter which persist longer than a year in the society is mineral). Patterns of domestic material consumption vary over the world, but stock accumulation generally is dominated by the built environment. The presentation will have three topics:
First: Is there a trend observable towards greater resource efficiency and/or less intensive consumption patterns in the built-up environment in industrialized countries? In the past forty years, an intensive discussion on resource use and the ecological effects of human activities has penetrated all sectors of society (Demonstration cases, best practice guides, indicator sets, modelling/ monitoring tools). Starting with the case of Germany in 1950, data has been collected to show the development through 2010 with an outlook until 2050. With exception of energy consumption, there are no signs of less intensive consumption patterns in Germany.
Second: What are the potentials of high-value recycling of construction and demolition waste? The existing material flows for the common construction materials concrete, tile, lime sand brick, porous concrete, gypsum, wood, mineral rock wool and rigid foam insulation material, glass and plastics were analysed. With experts from the construction industry and industry association representatives a consensual agreement was reached on “optimistic” RC material shares in the future. Under optimistic framework condition, the maximum savings potential are between 16-20%. The potential of more green building design will be not more than 4-8 %. Figures are dominated again by mineral material flow.
Third: Why does material flow analyses of the built environment need to be linked to issues of spatial planning? Domestic extraction of primary resources for building activities might have geophysical limitations, but in general limitations occur in the “shape” of land use conflicts. MFA and regional planning need to be combined in order to find solutions to minimize the environmental intervention by mining and in general: Settlements (buildings, technical and green infrastructure, layout patterns density of elements, functional assignments) determine not only the design quality of a place (and its life-expectancy), but the material for new construction and the flow over long period of time. Prediction of future resource take MFA needs to address the settlement structures, their distribution within regions and illustrate best possible urbanization patterns.
Dr. Walter Reinhardt
Sustainable Consumption and Production Project Coordinator, UNEP
Walter Reinhardt is a Sustainable Consumption and Production Project Coordinator with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), based in Bangkok, Thailand. Walter contributes to a number of UNEP projects in Asia and the Pacific region including SWITCH, Eco-innovation and Resource Efficiency through Application of Life cycle thinking (‘REAL’). These projects include working with governments, research and business sectors on policy development and implementation, training and technical capacity building, innovation and business change based on life cycle assessments and a resource efficiency evidence base.
Walter Reinhardt has a PhD from the Fenner School of Environment and Society, the Australian National University. Walter’s research interests focus on policy and resource efficiency. After award of his doctorate in 2015 Walter worked as a consultant with Arup, where he consulted to Australian, NSW, Victorian and ACT Governments as well as energy and water utilities. In addition to research and consulting experience, Walter draws on professional experience in finance, research, not-for-profit and agriculture sectors. He remains a Visiting Fellow at the Fenner School of Environment and Society and maintains publishing aspirations.
“The Sustainable Consumption and Production agenda within the United Nations system”
Exactly one year has passed since the declaration of goals for sustainable development, otherwise known as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The declaration was made at the United Nations complex in New York by the heads of state and their representatives, on behalf of the global community of nations and their people, representing their goals and aspirations for development. The declaration and supporting agreements contain seventeen Sustainable Development Goals, the twelfth SDG being SCP (Sustainable Consumption and Production), and 169 targets and 230 indicators by which to measure progress. Progressing, reporting and prioritising makes follow up and review of SDGs a crowded and noisy place. Should we be concerned that the SCP agenda will be lost in a busy UN system?
The UN system is coalescing around the SDGs, with new reporting and new coordination processes. UNEP is the custodian for most SCP indicators. With follow up and review, processes we may expect that progress against the SCP Goal will receive high level government attention in 2018. The Industrial Ecology community has an important role supporting the SCP agenda in domestic policy engagement and high quality research. The SCP agenda will support, and be supported by, good policy making if we can build capacity, own the data and make it meaningful. Success in domestic policy will ensure that the SCP agenda does not get lost in a busy UN system.